James Shires is the Co-Director of the European Cyber Conflict Research Initiative (ECCRI), and Senior Research Fellow at Chatham House. He was previously an Assistant Professor in Cybersecurity Governance at the Institute of Security and Global Affairs, University of Leiden. He is also a Fellow with The Hague Program on International Cyber Security. He has written widely on issues of cybersecurity and international politics, including cybersecurity expertise, digital authoritarianism, spyware regulation, and hack-and-leak operations. He is the author of The Politics of Cybersecurity in the Middle East (Hurst/Oxford University Press 2021).